In memory of our precioushigh school biology teacher Serap Başaranel, which enables us to understand our body …
The last of the books I bought at the beginning of the year, I was most curious … Before I started reading, I started to explain the contents to my close circle. My interest in microbes has recently started that the coronavirus epidemic has put the issue at the center of the world agenda. A biology book that allows you to understand, inform, benefit from understanding the human body, immune system, invisible but the world’s main judge viruses. With his stream of documentary tastes, he succeeded in entering the New York Times Best Seller. It was not enough 2017 wellcome book award finalist. Economist Best Books of 2016, Brain Pickings Best Science Books of 2016, and more.. I just would like to share my notes from the book.
The microbes present everywhere. The microbes in our right hand are very different from those in our mouth or ear. On the other hand, the types of microbes in my right hand and those in your right hand are more similar to those of my left hand. In the intestine, which is called the second brain, many different elements are managed, such as the fight against immunity, the breakdown of food, and the neurological balance. Trillions of them live within us in a huge dark world. Ignoring microbes means looking through the keyhole of life, says the preface. They have made an ambitious sentence like You will change your view of the microbiota, the world and yourself in a million tiny ways and you will understand that right even in the middle of the book.
Bill Gates “The pinnacle of science writing”
While the helicobacter pylori * that lives in the stomach causes ulcer and stomach cancer, it has a protective effect against esophageal cancer, and the strains responsible for these advantages and disadvantages are the same (page 92). In fact, no good, no bad microbes. We were told at school with the “war metaphor”. White blood cells do this on the battlefield, leukocytes are warriors, etc. The book looks very differently to the microorganism structure. There is no good, no bad, there is a livelihood. The hosts in our body are trying to harmonize with their relatives from outside. When you have colitis (colon cancer), it is accompanied by excessive growth in the bacteria that stimulates the immune system and a decrease in restrictive bacteria.
There is a research on the meerkats. It is determined that the common feature of the companies that have heart disease due to unknown age is that they are deprived of breast milk. (p. 124) Why do babies who are unable to breastfeed experience this problem? There are special sugars that some microbes can digest. Every baby, who is in a sterile environment in the womb, gets the first virus out of the womb. On the other hand, the first microbe goes down with breast milk. Bifidobacteria consume special sugars found in breast milk, called human milk oligosaccharides, that babies cannot otherwise digest. Do those who can’t get breastfeeding start life with the wrong microbes? Could it be the cause of heart disease that will arise later?
Mucus snot flowing through the nose, mucus sputum flowing through the mouth. This group gives the first immune reactions of the body. White snot is a sign of white blood cell richness, and green is a reaction. Inflammation is a reaction of the immune system.
What I am sure after reading the book is that the world’s judge is microbes. As evidenced by the Coronavirus outbreak,almost nothing is known about the bacteria that can’t be seen. On the 66th page of the book, the example is very interesting. The greatest enemy for the Navy is not a country or aliens, but bacteria. Throw a metal into the sea, bacteria in hours, then algae to understand how it damaged the ships. Mussels and clams. It can be the size of centimeters in a very short time. Some ships lowered divers and covered the sensitive parts of the ships with plastic.
The antibiotic is no longer a solution. We know that viruses get stronger. The reason for this is on page 220 in MI MAJOR ALLEGRO. The reason why it is written with a meaningful title is a complete orchestra operation. Bacteria have been making horizontal gene transfers (HGT) for billions of years. They do this very quickly. They have the ability to adapt and be together instantly. At this point, it is predicted where the types of drugs will go. It will become more common to have a virus and bacterial injection instead of a drug pill.
The consumption of saturated fat keeps some microbes that resist inflammation under pressure. (p. 143).
If your stool is small, your hospital is large.
Some microbes get along better with some diets. Some love fat, some like fibrous food, some even like to store it back to you as obesity. There is a serious connection between * obesity and microorganisms *. An interesting experiment is mentioned on page 132. Microbes of fat and weak mice are collected. These microbes are injected into pure Pak Lab rats, which have occurred in a sterile environment. The weight of mice receiving microbes from weak donors increases by 27%, and those taken from obese mice by 47%. Then, in a different experiment, obese mice are integrated with viruses of the weak. It is proved that obese mice occupy the gut and stop weight gain. In fact, you will read the rest of the book, not because it is a superior bacterial group.
We learn that fiber-rich foods are good for relatively beneficial microbes. In fact, by eating a balanced diet, we try to protect all kinds of bacteria that we ensure that the microbe ecosystem inside, that is, the microbiota to work properly.
Our hunter gatherer ancestors have to deal with seasonal menus. They encounter periods of fertility and famine. They had to try foods they didn’t know. A fast adapting microbiome makes it easier to cope with these difficulties (page 211). Coded habits in our DNA have been surprising since then. How did we learn to break down food that the body is not accustomed to, which can produce poison? YGA, horizontal gene transfer and bacteria have been transmitting information to each other for billions of years, which we noticed in the 1920s. For example, when the drug is developed to kill sensitive pathogens, we may encounter ‘super microbes’ and may be helpless against these beings who constantly resist and “uptade” themselves. We now know why antibiotics appear in our lives.
Why cultivate one year of corn and one year of soy in agricultural land If the farmers sow corn for one year and a large soy bean, the adult insect will lay between the corn, but the larvae will hatch among the soybeans and go wild. This practice, known as crop rotation, has been very effective in dealing with rootworm. (page 211) But the ones that are resistant to rotation, that is, those who survive by natural selection, create the appropriate environment for spawning.
The structure of plant microorganisms is also interestingly mentioned. While animals can fight and swell, plants defend chemically. It is filled with toxins that cause weight loss, form tumors, kill poisons.
Hydrogen cyanide is a very dangerous poison. Whaling rubs its harpoon, the Nazis use it in concentration camps, but the red spider is never affected. The cat, which inactivates cyanide, has cat itself. The gene passed them through bacteria. (218)
The expression of eating shit turns into reality
FMN is the process of transferring the microbes in one’s feces to another person by a technique called Fecal (fecal) microbiota transplant. According to the book, it benefits C-diff infections (severe diarrhea). It has been applied in different types of disease and can be injected into the intestine and consumed in the form of pills. It is also mentioned in the book, interestingly, while patients are warm about this method, doctors are not very pleased … The ethics committee has set certain conditions, but on the internet, people try and research this way to treat themselves. See: https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/news/20151209/diy-fecal-transplant#1
For the first time in history, the doctor flies There is no such expression, but I describe it that way. Dengue fever infected about 400 million people every year. It creates fever, headache, severe muscle and joint weight. They infect a bacteria called Wolbachia, which fascinates throughout the book. The persuasion and lab work of the people there are quite difficult. As a result, they leave around 300,000 flies in the pilot area within 2 months and settle around 80% -90%. For the first time in history, scientists are transforming a population of insects to prevent them from infecting humans. They do this through symbiosis.
As a result, he also gives hints about the future. We are now in the period of probiotics, microbe injection. We will treat with the microbes special for the diversity of microbes that the person is host specific to.
Viruses are not alive but dead. They have to be “guests” somewhere, but they can breed like crazy. For example, the coronavirus sticks to a DNA protein in the lung, then continues to live with us (https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/from-bats-to-human-lungs-the-evolution-of-a-coronavirus)
I took note of certain tech words mentioned in the book. If you hang out while reading [Glossary of Microbiota] (http://www.gorkemunel.com/mikrobiyata-sozlugu/)
In the book, the team that went to search for coral reefs was talking about an island. If you wonder, they meet such a world.
Bill Gates hosted his program. It’s very short, it’s pretty good with Ed Yong:
My gratitude to Ed Yong for adding a great vision to my life…